4.7.11 The map element

Categories:
Flow content.
Phrasing content.
Palpable content.
Contexts in which this element can be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Transparent.
Tag omission in text/html:
Neither tag is omissible.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
name — Name of image map to reference from the usemap attribute
DOM interface:
interface HTMLMapElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString name;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection areas;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection images;
};

The map element, in conjunction with an img element and any area element descendants, defines an image map. The element represents its children.

The name attribute gives the map a name so that it can be referenced. The attribute must be present and must have a non-empty value with no space characters. The value of the name attribute must not be a compatibility-caseless match for the value of the name attribute of another map element in the same document. If the id attribute is also specified, both attributes must have the same value.

map . areas

Returns an HTMLCollection of the area elements in the map.

map . images

Returns an HTMLCollection of the img and object elements that use the map.

Image maps can be defined in conjunction with other content on the page, to ease maintenance. This example is of a page with an image map at the top of the page and a corresponding set of text links at the bottom.

<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<TITLE>Babies™: Toys</TITLE>
<HEADER>
 <H1>Toys</H1>
 <IMG SRC="/images/menu.gif"
      ALT="Babies™ navigation menu. Select a department to go to its page."
      USEMAP="#NAV">
</HEADER>
 ...
<FOOTER>
 <MAP NAME="NAV">
  <P>
   <A HREF="/clothes/">Clothes</A>
   <AREA ALT="Clothes" COORDS="0,0,100,50" HREF="/clothes/"> |
   <A HREF="/toys/">Toys</A>
   <AREA ALT="Toys" COORDS="100,0,200,50" HREF="/toys/"> |
   <A HREF="/food/">Food</A>
   <AREA ALT="Food" COORDS="200,0,300,50" HREF="/food/"> |
   <A HREF="/books/">Books</A>
   <AREA ALT="Books" COORDS="300,0,400,50" HREF="/books/">
 </MAP>
</FOOTER>

4.7.12 The area element

Categories:
Flow content.
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element can be used:
Where phrasing content is expected, but only if there is a map element ancestor or a template element ancestor.
Content model:
Empty.
Tag omission in text/html:
No end tag.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
alt — Replacement text for use when images are not available
coords — Coordinates for the shape to be created in an image map
shape — The kind of shape to be created in an image map
href — Address of the hyperlink
targetBrowsing context for hyperlink navigation
download — Whether to download the resource instead of navigating to it, and its file name if so
pingURLs to ping
rel — Relationship between the document containing the hyperlink and the destination resource
hreflang — Language of the linked resource
type — Hint for the type of the referenced resource
DOM interface:
interface HTMLAreaElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString alt;
           attribute DOMString coords;
           attribute DOMString shape;
           attribute DOMString target;
           attribute DOMString download;
  [PutForwards=value] attribute DOMSettableTokenList ping;
           attribute DOMString rel;
  readonly attribute DOMTokenList relList;
           attribute DOMString hreflang;
           attribute DOMString type;
};
HTMLAreaElement implements URLUtils;

The area element represents either a hyperlink with some text and a corresponding area on an image map, or a dead area on an image map.

An area element with a parent node must have a map element ancestor or a template element ancestor.

If the area element has an href attribute, then the area element represents a hyperlink. In this case, the alt attribute must be present. It specifies the text of the hyperlink. Its value must be text that, when presented with the texts specified for the other hyperlinks of the image map, and with the alternative text of the image, but without the image itself, provides the user with the same kind of choice as the hyperlink would when used without its text but with its shape applied to the image. The alt attribute may be left blank if there is another area element in the same image map that points to the same resource and has a non-blank alt attribute.

If the area element has no href attribute, then the area represented by the element cannot be selected, and the alt attribute must be omitted.

In both cases, the shape and coords attributes specify the area.

The shape attribute is an enumerated attribute. The following table lists the keywords defined for this attribute. The states given in the first cell of the rows with keywords give the states to which those keywords map.

State Keywords
Circle state circle
Default state default
Polygon state poly
Rectangle state rect

The attribute may be omitted. The missing value default is the rectangle state.

The coords attribute must, if specified, contain a valid list of integers. This attribute gives the coordinates for the shape described by the shape attribute.

In the circle state, area elements must have a coords attribute present, with three integers, the last of which must be non-negative. The first integer must be the distance in CSS pixels from the left edge of the image to the center of the circle, the second integer must be the distance in CSS pixels from the top edge of the image to the center of the circle, and the third integer must be the radius of the circle, again in CSS pixels.

In the default state state, area elements must not have a coords attribute. (The area is the whole image.)

In the polygon state, area elements must have a coords attribute with at least six integers, and the number of integers must be even. Each pair of integers must represent a coordinate given as the distances from the left and the top of the image in CSS pixels respectively, and all the coordinates together must represent the points of the polygon, in order.

In the rectangle state, area elements must have a coords attribute with exactly four integers, the first of which must be less than the third, and the second of which must be less than the fourth. The four points must represent, respectively, the distance from the left edge of the image to the left side of the rectangle, the distance from the top edge to the top side, the distance from the left edge to the right side, and the distance from the top edge to the bottom side, all in CSS pixels.

The target, download, ping, rel, hreflang, and type attributes must be omitted if the href attribute is not present.

If the itemprop attribute is specified on an area element, then the href attribute must also be specified.

4.7.13 Image maps

An image map allows geometric areas on an image to be associated with hyperlinks.

An image, in the form of an img element or an object element representing an image, may be associated with an image map (in the form of a map element) by specifying a usemap attribute on the img or object element. The usemap attribute, if specified, must be a valid hash-name reference to a map element.

Consider an image that looks as follows:

A line with four shapes in it, equally spaced: a red hollow box, a green circle, a blue triangle, and a yellow four-pointed star.

If we wanted just the colored areas to be clickable, we could do it as follows:

<p>
 Please select a shape:
 <img src="shapes.png" usemap="#shapes"
      alt="Four shapes are available: a red hollow box, a green circle, a blue triangle, and a yellow four-pointed star.">
 <map name="shapes">
  <area shape=rect coords="50,50,100,100"> <!-- the hole in the red box -->
  <area shape=rect coords="25,25,125,125" href="red.html" alt="Red box.">
  <area shape=circle coords="200,75,50" href="green.html" alt="Green circle.">
  <area shape=poly coords="325,25,262,125,388,125" href="blue.html" alt="Blue triangle.">
  <area shape=poly coords="450,25,435,60,400,75,435,90,450,125,465,90,500,75,465,60"
        href="yellow.html" alt="Yellow star.">
 </map>
</p>

4.7.14 MathML

The math element from the MathML namespace falls into the embedded content, phrasing content, and flow content categories for the purposes of the content models in this specification.

When the MathML annotation-xml element contains elements from the HTML namespace, such elements must all be flow content. [MATHML]

When the MathML token elements (mi, mo, mn, ms, and mtext) are descendants of HTML elements, they may contain phrasing content elements from the HTML namespace. [MATHML]

The semantics of MathML elements are defined by the MathML specification and other applicable specifications. [MATHML]

Here is an example of the use of MathML in an HTML document:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
 <head>
  <title>The quadratic formula</title>
 </head>
 <body>
  <h1>The quadratic formula</h1>
  <p>
   <math>
    <mi>x</mi>
    <mo>=</mo>
    <mfrac>
     <mrow>
      <mo form="prefix">−</mo> <mi>b</mi>
      <mo>±</mo>
      <msqrt>
       <msup> <mi>b</mi> <mn>2</mn> </msup>
       <mo>−</mo>
       <mn>4</mn> <mo>&it;</mo> <mi>a</mi> <mo>&it;</mo> <mi>c</mi>
      </msqrt>
     </mrow>
     <mrow>
      <mn>2</mn> <mo>&it;</mo> <mi>a</mi>
     </mrow>
    </mfrac>
   </math>
  </p>
 </body>
</html>

4.7.15 SVG

The svg element from the SVG namespace falls into the embedded content, phrasing content, and flow content categories for the purposes of the content models in this specification.

When the SVG foreignObject element contains elements from the HTML namespace, such elements must all be flow content. [SVG]

The content model for title elements in the SVG namespace inside HTML documents is phrasing content. (This further constrains the requirements given in the SVG specification.)

The semantics of SVG elements are defined by the SVG specification and other applicable specifications. [SVG]

4.7.16 Dimension attributes

The width and height attributes on img, iframe, embed, object, video, and, when their type attribute is in the Image Button state, input elements may be specified to give the dimensions of the visual content of the element (the width and height respectively, relative to the nominal direction of the output medium), in CSS pixels. The attributes, if specified, must have values that are valid non-negative integers.

The specified dimensions given may differ from the dimensions specified in the resource itself, since the resource may have a resolution that differs from the CSS pixel resolution. (On screens, CSS pixels have a resolution of 96ppi, but in general the CSS pixel resolution depends on the reading distance.) If both attributes are specified, then one of the following statements must be true:

The target ratio is the ratio of the intrinsic width to the intrinsic height in the resource. The specified width and specified height are the values of the width and height attributes respectively.

The two attributes must be omitted if the resource in question does not have both an intrinsic width and an intrinsic height.

If the two attributes are both zero, it indicates that the element is not intended for the user (e.g. it might be a part of a service to count page views).

The dimension attributes are not intended to be used to stretch the image.